What Causes Kidney Stones?

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There are several factors that cause kidney stones such as;

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  • When urine contains crystal-forming substances like calcium, uric acid, and oxalate.
  • Lack of substances in the urine that prevent crystals from sticking together.

What is Kidney Stone?

Kidney stones are hard deposits that are made of salts and minerals that form inside the kidneys.

Kidney stones have several causing factors that can affect any part of the urinary tract from kidneys to the bladder. Stones form the urine becomes concentrated and allow minerals to crystallize and bind together.

Symptoms of Kidney Stone:

A kidney stone may not cause symptoms until it moves around within the kidney or passes into the ureter tube connecting the kidney and bladder. Several signs and symptoms may be experienced during this phase including;

  • Severe pain in the side, back, below the ribs.
  • Pain that radiates to the lower abdomen and groin
  • Pain during urination
  • Colored urine like pink, red or brown.
  • Cloudy or smelling urine
  • Vomiting and nausea
  • Persistent need to urinate
  • More often urinating than usual
  • Fever

Causes of Kidney Stone:

There are several factors that increase the risk of kidney stones including;

Kidney stones form when the urine contains more crystal-forming substances like calcium, uric acid, and oxalate.
Urine may lack substances that prevent crystals from binding together.

Types of Kidney Stones:

Knowing the type of kidney stone which helps in determining the cause and may give hints on how to reduce the risk of getting more kidney stones.

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Types of kidney stones include:

Calcium stones-

Mostly the kidney stones are calcium stones, that are a form of calcium oxalate. Oxalate is a naturally occurring substance that found in food and made daily by the liver. Some vegetables, fruits, and chocolate have high oxalate content.

Dietary factors, intestinal bypass surgery, high doses of vitamin D, and several metabolic disorders can increase the concentration of the calcium or oxalate in urine.

Struvite stones-

Struvite stones are formed in response to an infection like urinary tract infection. These struvite stones grow quickly and become large.

Uric acid stones-

Uric acid stones can be formed in people who lose too much fluid, who don’t drink enough fluids, or who eat a high-protein diet. There are also certain genetic factors that may increase the risk of uric acid stones.

Cystine stones-

These stones form in people those have the hereditary disorder because this causes the kidneys to excrete more certain amino acids (cystinuria).

Treatment for Kidney Stones:

There are many pain medications that can ease the discomfort. If the stone size is small its easy to treat without intervention. Several other factors that influence the ability to pass a stone include prostate size, patient size, and pregnancy. 80% of stones that are in size of 4 mm have a chance of passing without treatment.

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