Premenstrual Syndrome

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What is Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS)?

Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is emotional and physical symptoms that occur during one to two weeks before a woman’s period.

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It has several symptoms often vary between woman to woman and resolve around the start of bleeding.

Its common symptoms include acne, bloating, tender breast, feeling tired, mood changes, and irritability. Often symptoms are present for around six days.

A woman’s pattern of symptoms may change over time and these symptoms do not occur during pregnancy or following menopause.

The cause of PMS is unknown but it may be due to a high-salt diet, caffeine or alcohol. PMS has also involved changes in hormone level.

Up to 80%, women report having few symptoms prior to menstruation.

Signs and Symptoms of Premenstrual Syndrome:

There are more than 200 different symptoms have been connected with PMS like emotional and non-specific symptoms include stress, difficulty with sleep, anxiety, headache, mood swings, feeling tired, increased emotional sensitivity, and changes in interest in sex.

Physical symptoms linked to the menstrual cycle include bloating, abdominal cramps, lower back pain, constipation/diarrhea, swelling or tenderness in the breasts, joint or muscle pain, and cyclic acne.

Causes of Premenstrual Syndrome:

While PMS is linked to the luteal phase, the causes of PMS are not clear, but certain factors may be involved like changes in hormones during the menstrual cycle, chemical changes in the brain, stress, and emotional problems, such as depression. People Also Read: What Causes Kidney Stones?

Diagnosis of Premenstrual Syndrome:

There are no unique physical findings or laboratory tests to verify the diagnosis of PMS.

Following are the key features of PMS including;

  • The woman’s main complaint is one or more of the emotional symptoms associated with PMS like irritability, tension, or unhappiness.
  • The woman does not have PMS if she only has physical symptoms, such as bloating or cramps.
  • Symptoms appear predictably during the luteal (premenstrual) phase, disappear or reduce predictably shortly before or during menstruation, and continue absent during the follicular (preovulatory) phase.

Management of Premenstrual Syndrome:

  • Many treatments have been tried in PMS such as reducing salt, stress, and caffeine along with increasing exercise is recommended in those with mild symptoms.
  • Vitamin D and calcium supplementation may be useful in some cases.
  • Use of anti-inflammatories such as naproxen may help with physical symptoms. [People Also Read: 5 Best Workplace Exercise to Fight Fatigue]

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