According to Jayasree Iyer, from the Netherlands-based non-profit Access to Medicine Foundation, there is the need for responsible marketing and manufacturing of antibiotics so that antibiotics do not cause damage to the environment.
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It may also drive to misuse can help tackle the threat of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) or superbugs.
According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), there is the increase in antibacterial resistance or AMR which is a serious threat to global public health.
What is Antibiotics?
Antibiotics or antibacterial are antimicrobial medicines drugs used for the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.
Mainly, antibiotics work by inhibiting or killing the growth of bacteria followed by possessing its antiprotozoal activity.
Antibiotics are ineffective against viruses like common cold or influenza and antiviral drugs.
There are several types of generic antibiotics such as amoxicillin, doxycycline, and cephalexin.
What is Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR)?
AMR is the ability of a microorganism to resist the effects of drugs or medication used to treat them. AMR is also known as antibiotic resistance, in which bacteria becoming resistant to antibiotics. Resistant microbes are difficult to treat, due to its requirement for alternative medications or higher doses, both of which could be more toxic or expensive. Microbes resistant to multiple antimicrobials are called multidrug-resistant (MDR) or superbugs.
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There are three types of resistance mechanisms including natural resistance in certain bacteria, genetic mutation, or by one species acquiring resistance from another.
All types of microorganism can develop resistance including;
- Viruses develop antiviral resistance
- Fungi develop antifungal resistance
- Bacteria develop antibiotic resistance
- Protozoa develop antiprotozoal resistance
Preventive measures include antibiotics when they are needed, thereby limiting misuse of antimicrobials or antibiotics.
Narrow-spectrum antimicrobials or antibiotics are preferred over broad-spectrum antibiotics when possible.
Rising drug resistance is caused mainly by the use of antimicrobials in humans and other animals, and spread of resistant strains between the two.
Antibiotics increase selective pressure in bacterial populations that causes vulnerable bacteria to die.
By resistance to antibiotics becoming more common need for alternative treatments.
Causes of Antimicrobial Resistance?
- Bacteria in resistance to antibiotics has medical use of antibiotics by humans.
- Widespread antibiotic use bacteria resistant to the evolutionary pressure.
- Increase in global availability.
- Uncontrolled sale of antibiotics in several low or middle-income countries.
- Use of antibiotic in livestock feed at low doses.[People Also Like: What Causes Hiccups? ]
- Delivering large quantities of antibiotics into the environment through pharmaceutical production.